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However, ideological and personality differences emerged within the MMM leadership. The MMM government split up nine months after the June election.

According to an Information Ministry official the nine months was a "socialist experiment". Industrialisation began to spread to villages as well, and attracted young workers from all ethnic communities.

As a result, the sugar industry began to lose its hold on the economy. Large retail chains began opening stores in and offered credit facilities to low-income earners, thus allowing them to afford basic household appliances.

There was also a boom in the tourism industry, and new hotels sprang up throughout the island. In the stock exchange opened its doors and in the freeport began operation.

On 12 March , twenty-four years after independence, Mauritius was proclaimed a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations.

Despite an improvement in the economy, which coincided with a fall in the price of petrol and a favourable dollar exchange rate, the government did not enjoy full popularity.

As early as , there was discontent. Through the Newspapers and Periodicals Amendment Act , the government tried to make every newspaper provide a bank guarantee of half a million rupees.

Forty-three journalists protested by participating in a public demonstration in Port Louis, in front of Parliament.

They were arrested and freed on bail. This caused a public outcry and the government had to review its policy. There was also dissatisfaction in the education sector.

There were not enough high-quality secondary colleges to answer the growing demand of primary school leavers who had got through their CPE Certificate of Primary Education.

In , a master plan for education failed to get national support and contributed to the government's downfall. Navin Ramgoolam was elected as prime minister in In February , the country experienced a brief period of civil unrest.

The resulting report delved into the cause of poverty and qualified many tenacious beliefs as perceptions. In , the island of Rodrigues became an autonomous entity within the republic and was thus able to elect its own representatives to administer the island.

In , Navin Ramgoolam and the Labour Party returned to power. Ramgoolam lost power in He was succeeded by Anerood Jugnauth. On 21 January , Anerood Jugnauth announced that in two days time he would resign in favour of his son, Finance Minister Pravind Jugnauth , who would assume the office of prime minister.

In , Mauritian president Ameenah Gurib-Fakim the only former female head of state in the African Union resigned over a financial scandal.

On 25 July , Japanese-owned bulk carrier MV Wakashio ran aground on a coral reef off the coast of Mauritius, leaking up to 1, tonnes of heavy oil into a pristine lagoon.

Its location on the edge of protected fragile marine ecosystems and a wetland of international importance made the spill one of the worst environmental disasters ever to hit the western Indian Ocean.

It is the th largest nation in the world by size. The Republic of Mauritius is constituted of Mauritius Island and several outlying islands.

The nation's exclusive economic zone EEZ covers about 2. Its land area is 1, These islands emerged as a result of gigantic underwater volcanic eruptions that happened thousands of kilometres to the east of the continental block made up of Africa and Madagascar.

Streams and rivers speckle the island, many formed in the cracks created by lava flows. The island also has a coral reef and extensive limestone deposits.

According to Statistics Mauritius, at 1 July , the population of the island was estimated at 43, The Chagos Archipelago is composed of atolls and islands, and is located approximately 2, kilometres north-east of the main island of Mauritius.

Diego Garcia is in the south-east of the Archipelago. The archipelago consists of 16 Islands and Islets. Saint Brandon consists of five island groups, with about 28—40 islands and islets in total, depending on seasonal storms and related sand movements.

Brandon was estimated at Mauritius claims sovereignty over Tromelin island , as does France. The French took control of Mauritius in , renaming it Isle de France.

The British Colony of Mauritius consisted of the main island of Mauritius along with its dependencies Rodrigues , Agalega , St Brandon , Tromelin disputed and the Chagos Archipelago , while the Seychelles became a separate colony in It is disputed whether the transfer of Isle de France As Mauritius was previously known under French rule and its dependencies to Britain in included Tromelin island.

Article 8 of the Treaty of Paris stipulate the cession by France to Britain of Isle de France "and its dependencies, namely Rodrigues and the Seychelles".

France considers that the sovereignty of Tromelin island was never transferred to Britain. Mauritius claim that since Tromelin was a dependency of Isle de France, it was 'de facto' transferred to Britain in In addition, the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega, St Brandon and the Chagos Archipelago were also not specifically mentioned in the Treaty of Paris but became part of the British Colony of Mauritius as they were dependencies of Isle de France at that time.

In addition, the British authorities in Mauritius have been taking administrative measures with respect to Tromelin over the years, for instance, British officials granted four guano operating concessions on Tromelin island between and Mauritius is subdivided into nine Districts, they consist of different cities, towns and villages.

Chagos was administratively part of Mauritius from the 18th century when the French first settled the islands. All of the islands forming part of the French colonial territory of Isle de France as Mauritius was then known were ceded to the British in under the Act of Capitulation signed between the two powers.

The islands were formally established as an overseas territory of the United Kingdom on 8 November On 23 June , Aldabra, Farquhar and Desroches were returned to Seychelles as a result of its attaining independence.

The UK leased the main island of the archipelago, Diego Garcia , to the United States under a year lease to establish a military base. To force the inhabitants to leave, first the British authorities cut off food supplies, and those who resisted were threatened with being shot or bombed if they did not leave the island.

To frighten them, their dogs and pets were cruelly gassed to death. Chagossians have since engaged in activism to return to the archipelago, claiming that their forced expulsion and dispossession were illegal.

Mauritius considers the territorial sea of the Chagos Archipelago and Tromelin island as part of its Exclusive Economic Zone.

The dispute was arbitrated by the Permanent Court of Arbitration. The sovereignty of Mauritius was explicitly recognized by two of the arbitrators and denied by none of the other three.

Three members of the Tribunal found that they did not have jurisdiction to rule on that question; they expressed no view as to which of the two States has sovereignty over the Chagos Archipelago.

Tribunal Judges Rüdiger Wolfrum and James Kateka held that the Tribunal did have jurisdiction to decide this question, and concluded that UK does not have sovereignty over the Chagos Archipelago.

They found that: [88]. The Tribunal's decision determined that the UK's undertaking to return the Chagos Archipelago to Mauritius gives Mauritius an interest in significant decisions that bear upon possible future uses of the Archipelago.

The result of the Tribunal's decision is that it is now open to the Parties to enter into the negotiations that the Tribunal would have expected prior to the proclamation of the MPA, with a view to achieving a mutually satisfactory arrangement for protecting the marine environment, to the extent necessary under a "sovereignty umbrella".

In , following the decision of the British government to promulgate the British Indian Ocean Territory Order, which prohibited the Chagossians from remaining on the islands without express authorisation, Mauritius contemplated recourse to the International Court of Justice to finally and conclusively settle the dispute.

However, article 36 of the International Court of Justice Statute provides that it is the option of the state whether it wishes to subject itself to the court's jurisdiction.

Where the state chooses to be so bound, it may also restrict or limit the jurisdiction of the court in a number of ways.

The UK's clause deposited at the court excluded, amongst other things, the jurisdiction of the court with regard "to any disputes with the government of any country which is a member of the Commonwealth with regard to situations or facts existing before 1 January ".

The temporal limitation of 1 January was inserted to exclude all disputes arising during decolonisation. The effect of the British exclusionary clause would thus have prevented Mauritius from resorting to the court on the Chagos dispute because it is a member of the Commonwealth.

When Mauritius threatened to leave the Commonwealth, the United Kingdom quickly amended its exclusion clause to exclude any disputes between itself, Commonwealth States and former Commonwealth States , thereby quashing any Mauritian hopes to ever have recourse to the contentious jurisdiction of the court, even if it left.

On 22 June , by a margin of 94 to 15 countries, the UN General Assembly asked the International Court of Justice to give an advisory opinion on the separation of the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritius before the country's independence in the s.

In September , the International Court of Justice began hearings on the case. On 25 February , the judges of the International Court of Justice by thirteen votes to one stated that the United Kingdom is under an obligation to bring to an end its administration of the Chagos Archipelago as rapidly as possible.

The president of the court, Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf , said the detachment of the Chagos Archipelago in from Mauritius had not been based on a "free and genuine expression of the people concerned.

He stated that the ruling was merely an advisory opinion and not a legally binding judgment. He expressed his concern that the UK government appears ready to disregard international law and ignore a ruling of the international court and the right of the Chagossians to return to their homes.

On 22 May , the United Nations General Assembly debated and adopted a resolution that affirmed that the Chagos Archipelago, which has been occupied by the UK for more than 50 years, "forms an integral part of the territory of Mauritius".

The resolution gives effect to an advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice ICJ , demanded that the UK "withdraw its colonial administration During the debate, the Mauritian Prime Minister described the expulsion of Chagossians as "a crime against humanity ".

The country is home to some of the world's rarest plants and animals, but human habitation and the introduction of non-native species have threatened its indigenous flora and fauna.

Before the Portuguese arrival in , there were no terrestrial mammals on the island. This allowed the evolution of a number of flightless birds and large reptile species.

The arrival of humans saw the introduction of invasive alien species, the rapid destruction of habitat and the loss of much of the endemic flora and fauna.

There are some isolated mountains, Corps de Garde , Le Morne Brabant , and several offshore islands , with remnants of coastal and mainland diversity.

Over species of plants and animals have become extinct and many more are threatened. Conservation activities began in the s with the implementation of programmes for the reproduction of threatened bird and plant species as well as habitat restoration in the national parks and nature reserves.

The Mauritian Flying Fox is the only remaining mammal endemic to the island, and has been severely threatened in recent years due to the government sanctioned culling introduced in November due to the belief that they were a threat to fruit plantations.

Prior to the lack of severe cyclone had seen the fruit bat population increase and the status of the species was then changed by the IUCN from Endangered to Vulnerable in When it was discovered, Mauritius was the home of a previously unknown species of bird, the dodo , descendants of a type of pigeon which settled in Mauritius over four million years ago.

The Portuguese discovered the island around and the island quickly became a stopover for ships engaged in the spice trade.

Large numbers of dodos were killed for food. Later, when the Dutch used the island as a penal colony, new species were introduced to the island.

Rats , pigs, and monkeys ate dodo eggs in the ground nests. The combination of human exploitation and introduced species significantly reduced the dodo population.

Within years of the arrival of humans on Mauritius, the once abundant dodo became a rare bird. The last one was killed in The environment in Mauritius is typically tropical in the coastal regions with forests in the mountainous areas.

Seasonal cyclones are destructive to its flora and fauna, although they recover quickly. Mauritius ranked second in an air quality index released by the World Health Organization in Situated near the Tropic of Capricorn , Mauritius has a tropical climate.

There are 2 seasons: a warm humid summer from November to April, with a mean temperature of The temperature difference between the seasons is only 4.

The warmest months are January and February with average day maximum temperature reaching Although there is no marked rainy season, most of the rainfall occurs in summer months.

The central plateau is much cooler than the surrounding coastal areas and can experience as much as double the rainfall.

The prevailing trade winds keep the east side of the island cooler and bring more rain. Occasional tropical cyclones generally occur between January and March and tend to disrupt the weather for about three days, bringing heavy rain.

The politics of Mauritius take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, in which the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government , assisted by a Council of Ministers.

Mauritius has a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and the National Assembly.

The National Assembly is Mauritius's unicameral legislature, which was called the Legislative Assembly until , when the country became a republic.

It consists of 70 members, 62 elected for four-year terms in multi-member constituencies and eight additional members, known as "best losers", appointed by the Electoral Service Commission to ensure that ethnic and religious minorities are equitably represented.

The island of Mauritius is divided into 20 constituencies that return three members each, while Rodrigues is a single constituency that returns two members.

After a general election, the Electoral Supervisory Commission may nominate up to eight additional members with a view to correct any imbalance in the representation of ethnic minorities in Parliament.

This system of nominating members is commonly called the best loser system. The political party or party alliance that wins the majority of seats in Parliament forms the government.

Its leader becomes the Prime Minister, who selects the Cabinet from elected members of the Assembly, except for the Attorney General, who may not be an elected member of the Assembly.

The political party or alliance which has the second largest majority forms the Official Opposition and its leader is normally nominated by the President of the Republic as the Leader of the Opposition.

Mauritius is a democracy with a government elected every five years. The most recent National Assembly Election was held on 10 December in all the 20 mainland constituencies, and in the constituency covering the island of Rodrigues.

Elections have tended to be a contest between two major coalitions of parties. All military, police, and security functions in Mauritius are carried out by 10, active-duty personnel under the Commissioner of Police.

The 8,member National Police Force is responsible for domestic law enforcement. Both units are composed of police officers on lengthy rotations to those services.

Mauritius has strong and friendly relations with various African, American, Asian, European and Oceania countries.

Considered part of Africa geographically, Mauritius has friendly relations with African states in the region, particularly South Africa, by far its largest continental trading partner.

Mauritian investors are gradually entering African markets, notably Madagascar, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The country's political heritage and dependence on Western markets have led to close ties with the European Union and its member states, particularly France.

Relations with India is very strong for both historical and commercial reasons. Mauritius established diplomatic relations with China in April and was forced to defend this decision, along with naval contracts with the USSR in the same year.

Mauritius has a hybrid legal system derives from British common law and the French civil law. The Constitution of Mauritius established the separation of powers between the legislature , the executive and the judiciary and guaranteed the protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual.

Mauritius has a single-structured judicial system consisting of two tiers, the Supreme Court and subordinate courts. After the independence of Mauritius in , Mauritius maintained the Privy Council as its highest court of appeal.

Appeals to the Judicial Committee from decisions of the Court of Appeal or the Supreme Court may be as of right or with the leave of the Court, as set out in section 81 of the Constitution and section 70A of the Courts Act.

The Judicial Committee may also grant special leave to appeal from the decision of any court in any civil or criminal matter as per section 81 5 of the Constitution.

The estimated population of the Republic of Mauritius was at 1,,, of whom , were males and , females as at 1 July The population on the island of Mauritius was 1,,, and that of Rodrigues island was 43,; Agalega and Saint Brandon had an estimated total population of Subsequent to a Constitutional amendment in , there is no need for Mauritians to reveal their ethnic identities for the purpose of population census.

Official statistics on ethnicity are not available. The census was the last one to measure ethnicity. According to the census conducted by Statistics Mauritius , The Mauritian constitution makes no mention of an official language.

The Constitution only mentions that the official language of the National Assembly is English; however, any member can also address the chair in French.

The Mauritian currency features the Latin , Tamil and Devanagari scripts. The Mauritian population is multilingual ; while Mauritian Creole is the mother tongue of most Mauritians, most people are also fluent in English and French; they tend to switch languages according to the situation.

The media and literature are primarily in French. The Creole language, which is French-based with some additional influences, is spoken by the majority of the population as a native language.

Some ancestral languages that are also spoken in Mauritius include Bhojpuri , [] Chinese , [] Hindi , [] Marathi , [] Tamil , [] Telugu [] and Urdu.

School students must learn English and French; they may also opt for an Asian language or Mauritian Creole. The medium of instruction varies from school to school but is usually Creole, French and English.

The education system in Mauritius consists of pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. The education structure consists of two to three years of pre-primary school, six years of primary schooling leading to the Primary School Achievement Certificate, five years of secondary education leading to the School Certificate, and two years of higher secondary ending with the Higher School Certificate.

Secondary schools have "college" as part of their title. The government of Mauritius provides free education to its citizens from pre-primary to tertiary level.

The tertiary education sector includes universities and other technical institutions in Mauritius. These four public universities and several other technical institutes and higher education colleges are tuition-free for students as of The adult literacy rate was estimated at Since independence from Britain in , Mauritius has developed from a low-income, agriculture-based economy to a high-income diversified economy, based on tourism , textiles, sugar, and financial services.

The economic history of Mauritius since independence has been called "the Mauritian Miracle" and the "success of Africa" Romer, ; Frankel, ; Stiglitz, In recent years, information and communication technology, seafood, hospitality and property development, healthcare, renewable energy, and education and training have emerged as important sectors, attracting substantial investment from both local and foreign investors.

Mauritius has no exploitable fossil fuel reserves and so relies on petroleum products to meet most of its energy requirements.

Local and renewable energy sources are biomass, hydro, solar and wind energy. Mauritius has one of the largest exclusive economic zones in the world, and in the government announced its intention to develop the marine economy.

Mauritius is ranked high in terms of economic competitiveness, a friendly investment climate, good governance and a free economy. Mauritius has a high-income economy , according to the World Bank in According to the Mauritian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the country's challenges are heavy reliance on a few industry sectors, high brain drain, scarcity of skilled labour, ageing population and inefficient public companies and para-statal bodies.

Mauritius has built its success on a free market economy. According to the Economic Freedom of the World report, Mauritius is ranked as having the 9th most free economy in the world.

According to the Financial Services Commission , financial and insurance activities contributed to It is home to a number of international banks, legal firms, corporate services, investment funds and private equity funds.

Financial products and services, includes private banking, global business, insurance and reinsurance, limited companies, protected cell companies, trust and foundation, investment banking, global headquarter administration.

Despite being tagged as a tax haven by the press due to its low tax regime, [] [] the country has built up a solid reputation by making use of best practices and adopting a strong legal and regulatory framework to demonstrate its compliance with international demands for greater transparency.

In June , Mauritius adhered to the multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters , and currently has an exchange information mechanism with jurisdictions.

Mauritius is a founding member of the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti Money Laundering Group and has been at the forefront in the fight against money laundering and other forms of financial crime.

Mauritius is a major tourist destination, the tourism sector is the fourth contributor to the Mauritian economy.

The island nation enjoys a tropical climate with clear warm sea waters, beaches, tropical fauna and flora complemented by a multi-ethnic and cultural population.

Since public buses in Mauritius have been free of charge for students, people with disabilities and senior citizens.

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Its location on the edge of protected fragile marine ecosystems and a wetland of international importance made the spill one of the worst environmental disasters ever to hit the western Indian Ocean.

It is the th largest nation in the world by size. The Republic of Mauritius is constituted of Mauritius Island and several outlying islands. The nation's exclusive economic zone EEZ covers about 2.

Its land area is 1, These islands emerged as a result of gigantic underwater volcanic eruptions that happened thousands of kilometres to the east of the continental block made up of Africa and Madagascar.

Streams and rivers speckle the island, many formed in the cracks created by lava flows. The island also has a coral reef and extensive limestone deposits.

According to Statistics Mauritius, at 1 July , the population of the island was estimated at 43, The Chagos Archipelago is composed of atolls and islands, and is located approximately 2, kilometres north-east of the main island of Mauritius.

Diego Garcia is in the south-east of the Archipelago. The archipelago consists of 16 Islands and Islets.

Saint Brandon consists of five island groups, with about 28—40 islands and islets in total, depending on seasonal storms and related sand movements.

Brandon was estimated at Mauritius claims sovereignty over Tromelin island , as does France. The French took control of Mauritius in , renaming it Isle de France.

The British Colony of Mauritius consisted of the main island of Mauritius along with its dependencies Rodrigues , Agalega , St Brandon , Tromelin disputed and the Chagos Archipelago , while the Seychelles became a separate colony in It is disputed whether the transfer of Isle de France As Mauritius was previously known under French rule and its dependencies to Britain in included Tromelin island.

Article 8 of the Treaty of Paris stipulate the cession by France to Britain of Isle de France "and its dependencies, namely Rodrigues and the Seychelles".

France considers that the sovereignty of Tromelin island was never transferred to Britain. Mauritius claim that since Tromelin was a dependency of Isle de France, it was 'de facto' transferred to Britain in In addition, the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega, St Brandon and the Chagos Archipelago were also not specifically mentioned in the Treaty of Paris but became part of the British Colony of Mauritius as they were dependencies of Isle de France at that time.

In addition, the British authorities in Mauritius have been taking administrative measures with respect to Tromelin over the years, for instance, British officials granted four guano operating concessions on Tromelin island between and Mauritius is subdivided into nine Districts, they consist of different cities, towns and villages.

Chagos was administratively part of Mauritius from the 18th century when the French first settled the islands. All of the islands forming part of the French colonial territory of Isle de France as Mauritius was then known were ceded to the British in under the Act of Capitulation signed between the two powers.

The islands were formally established as an overseas territory of the United Kingdom on 8 November On 23 June , Aldabra, Farquhar and Desroches were returned to Seychelles as a result of its attaining independence.

The UK leased the main island of the archipelago, Diego Garcia , to the United States under a year lease to establish a military base.

To force the inhabitants to leave, first the British authorities cut off food supplies, and those who resisted were threatened with being shot or bombed if they did not leave the island.

To frighten them, their dogs and pets were cruelly gassed to death. Chagossians have since engaged in activism to return to the archipelago, claiming that their forced expulsion and dispossession were illegal.

Mauritius considers the territorial sea of the Chagos Archipelago and Tromelin island as part of its Exclusive Economic Zone.

The dispute was arbitrated by the Permanent Court of Arbitration. The sovereignty of Mauritius was explicitly recognized by two of the arbitrators and denied by none of the other three.

Three members of the Tribunal found that they did not have jurisdiction to rule on that question; they expressed no view as to which of the two States has sovereignty over the Chagos Archipelago.

Tribunal Judges Rüdiger Wolfrum and James Kateka held that the Tribunal did have jurisdiction to decide this question, and concluded that UK does not have sovereignty over the Chagos Archipelago.

They found that: [88]. The Tribunal's decision determined that the UK's undertaking to return the Chagos Archipelago to Mauritius gives Mauritius an interest in significant decisions that bear upon possible future uses of the Archipelago.

The result of the Tribunal's decision is that it is now open to the Parties to enter into the negotiations that the Tribunal would have expected prior to the proclamation of the MPA, with a view to achieving a mutually satisfactory arrangement for protecting the marine environment, to the extent necessary under a "sovereignty umbrella".

In , following the decision of the British government to promulgate the British Indian Ocean Territory Order, which prohibited the Chagossians from remaining on the islands without express authorisation, Mauritius contemplated recourse to the International Court of Justice to finally and conclusively settle the dispute.

However, article 36 of the International Court of Justice Statute provides that it is the option of the state whether it wishes to subject itself to the court's jurisdiction.

Where the state chooses to be so bound, it may also restrict or limit the jurisdiction of the court in a number of ways.

The UK's clause deposited at the court excluded, amongst other things, the jurisdiction of the court with regard "to any disputes with the government of any country which is a member of the Commonwealth with regard to situations or facts existing before 1 January ".

The temporal limitation of 1 January was inserted to exclude all disputes arising during decolonisation. The effect of the British exclusionary clause would thus have prevented Mauritius from resorting to the court on the Chagos dispute because it is a member of the Commonwealth.

When Mauritius threatened to leave the Commonwealth, the United Kingdom quickly amended its exclusion clause to exclude any disputes between itself, Commonwealth States and former Commonwealth States , thereby quashing any Mauritian hopes to ever have recourse to the contentious jurisdiction of the court, even if it left.

On 22 June , by a margin of 94 to 15 countries, the UN General Assembly asked the International Court of Justice to give an advisory opinion on the separation of the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritius before the country's independence in the s.

In September , the International Court of Justice began hearings on the case. On 25 February , the judges of the International Court of Justice by thirteen votes to one stated that the United Kingdom is under an obligation to bring to an end its administration of the Chagos Archipelago as rapidly as possible.

The president of the court, Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf , said the detachment of the Chagos Archipelago in from Mauritius had not been based on a "free and genuine expression of the people concerned.

He stated that the ruling was merely an advisory opinion and not a legally binding judgment. He expressed his concern that the UK government appears ready to disregard international law and ignore a ruling of the international court and the right of the Chagossians to return to their homes.

On 22 May , the United Nations General Assembly debated and adopted a resolution that affirmed that the Chagos Archipelago, which has been occupied by the UK for more than 50 years, "forms an integral part of the territory of Mauritius".

The resolution gives effect to an advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice ICJ , demanded that the UK "withdraw its colonial administration During the debate, the Mauritian Prime Minister described the expulsion of Chagossians as "a crime against humanity ".

The country is home to some of the world's rarest plants and animals, but human habitation and the introduction of non-native species have threatened its indigenous flora and fauna.

Before the Portuguese arrival in , there were no terrestrial mammals on the island. This allowed the evolution of a number of flightless birds and large reptile species.

The arrival of humans saw the introduction of invasive alien species, the rapid destruction of habitat and the loss of much of the endemic flora and fauna.

There are some isolated mountains, Corps de Garde , Le Morne Brabant , and several offshore islands , with remnants of coastal and mainland diversity.

Over species of plants and animals have become extinct and many more are threatened. Conservation activities began in the s with the implementation of programmes for the reproduction of threatened bird and plant species as well as habitat restoration in the national parks and nature reserves.

The Mauritian Flying Fox is the only remaining mammal endemic to the island, and has been severely threatened in recent years due to the government sanctioned culling introduced in November due to the belief that they were a threat to fruit plantations.

Prior to the lack of severe cyclone had seen the fruit bat population increase and the status of the species was then changed by the IUCN from Endangered to Vulnerable in When it was discovered, Mauritius was the home of a previously unknown species of bird, the dodo , descendants of a type of pigeon which settled in Mauritius over four million years ago.

The Portuguese discovered the island around and the island quickly became a stopover for ships engaged in the spice trade. Large numbers of dodos were killed for food.

Later, when the Dutch used the island as a penal colony, new species were introduced to the island. Rats , pigs, and monkeys ate dodo eggs in the ground nests.

The combination of human exploitation and introduced species significantly reduced the dodo population.

Within years of the arrival of humans on Mauritius, the once abundant dodo became a rare bird. The last one was killed in The environment in Mauritius is typically tropical in the coastal regions with forests in the mountainous areas.

Seasonal cyclones are destructive to its flora and fauna, although they recover quickly. Mauritius ranked second in an air quality index released by the World Health Organization in Situated near the Tropic of Capricorn , Mauritius has a tropical climate.

There are 2 seasons: a warm humid summer from November to April, with a mean temperature of The temperature difference between the seasons is only 4.

The warmest months are January and February with average day maximum temperature reaching Although there is no marked rainy season, most of the rainfall occurs in summer months.

The central plateau is much cooler than the surrounding coastal areas and can experience as much as double the rainfall.

The prevailing trade winds keep the east side of the island cooler and bring more rain. Occasional tropical cyclones generally occur between January and March and tend to disrupt the weather for about three days, bringing heavy rain.

The politics of Mauritius take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, in which the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government , assisted by a Council of Ministers.

Mauritius has a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and the National Assembly.

The National Assembly is Mauritius's unicameral legislature, which was called the Legislative Assembly until , when the country became a republic.

It consists of 70 members, 62 elected for four-year terms in multi-member constituencies and eight additional members, known as "best losers", appointed by the Electoral Service Commission to ensure that ethnic and religious minorities are equitably represented.

The island of Mauritius is divided into 20 constituencies that return three members each, while Rodrigues is a single constituency that returns two members.

After a general election, the Electoral Supervisory Commission may nominate up to eight additional members with a view to correct any imbalance in the representation of ethnic minorities in Parliament.

This system of nominating members is commonly called the best loser system. The political party or party alliance that wins the majority of seats in Parliament forms the government.

Its leader becomes the Prime Minister, who selects the Cabinet from elected members of the Assembly, except for the Attorney General, who may not be an elected member of the Assembly.

The political party or alliance which has the second largest majority forms the Official Opposition and its leader is normally nominated by the President of the Republic as the Leader of the Opposition.

Mauritius is a democracy with a government elected every five years. The most recent National Assembly Election was held on 10 December in all the 20 mainland constituencies, and in the constituency covering the island of Rodrigues.

Elections have tended to be a contest between two major coalitions of parties. All military, police, and security functions in Mauritius are carried out by 10, active-duty personnel under the Commissioner of Police.

The 8,member National Police Force is responsible for domestic law enforcement. Both units are composed of police officers on lengthy rotations to those services.

Mauritius has strong and friendly relations with various African, American, Asian, European and Oceania countries. Considered part of Africa geographically, Mauritius has friendly relations with African states in the region, particularly South Africa, by far its largest continental trading partner.

Mauritian investors are gradually entering African markets, notably Madagascar, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

The country's political heritage and dependence on Western markets have led to close ties with the European Union and its member states, particularly France.

Relations with India is very strong for both historical and commercial reasons. Mauritius established diplomatic relations with China in April and was forced to defend this decision, along with naval contracts with the USSR in the same year.

Mauritius has a hybrid legal system derives from British common law and the French civil law. The Constitution of Mauritius established the separation of powers between the legislature , the executive and the judiciary and guaranteed the protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual.

Mauritius has a single-structured judicial system consisting of two tiers, the Supreme Court and subordinate courts. After the independence of Mauritius in , Mauritius maintained the Privy Council as its highest court of appeal.

Appeals to the Judicial Committee from decisions of the Court of Appeal or the Supreme Court may be as of right or with the leave of the Court, as set out in section 81 of the Constitution and section 70A of the Courts Act.

The Judicial Committee may also grant special leave to appeal from the decision of any court in any civil or criminal matter as per section 81 5 of the Constitution.

The estimated population of the Republic of Mauritius was at 1,,, of whom , were males and , females as at 1 July The population on the island of Mauritius was 1,,, and that of Rodrigues island was 43,; Agalega and Saint Brandon had an estimated total population of Subsequent to a Constitutional amendment in , there is no need for Mauritians to reveal their ethnic identities for the purpose of population census.

Official statistics on ethnicity are not available. The census was the last one to measure ethnicity.

According to the census conducted by Statistics Mauritius , The Mauritian constitution makes no mention of an official language. The Constitution only mentions that the official language of the National Assembly is English; however, any member can also address the chair in French.

The Mauritian currency features the Latin , Tamil and Devanagari scripts. The Mauritian population is multilingual ; while Mauritian Creole is the mother tongue of most Mauritians, most people are also fluent in English and French; they tend to switch languages according to the situation.

The media and literature are primarily in French. The Creole language, which is French-based with some additional influences, is spoken by the majority of the population as a native language.

Some ancestral languages that are also spoken in Mauritius include Bhojpuri , [] Chinese , [] Hindi , [] Marathi , [] Tamil , [] Telugu [] and Urdu.

School students must learn English and French; they may also opt for an Asian language or Mauritian Creole. The medium of instruction varies from school to school but is usually Creole, French and English.

The education system in Mauritius consists of pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. The education structure consists of two to three years of pre-primary school, six years of primary schooling leading to the Primary School Achievement Certificate, five years of secondary education leading to the School Certificate, and two years of higher secondary ending with the Higher School Certificate.

Secondary schools have "college" as part of their title. The government of Mauritius provides free education to its citizens from pre-primary to tertiary level.

The tertiary education sector includes universities and other technical institutions in Mauritius. These four public universities and several other technical institutes and higher education colleges are tuition-free for students as of The adult literacy rate was estimated at Since independence from Britain in , Mauritius has developed from a low-income, agriculture-based economy to a high-income diversified economy, based on tourism , textiles, sugar, and financial services.

The economic history of Mauritius since independence has been called "the Mauritian Miracle" and the "success of Africa" Romer, ; Frankel, ; Stiglitz, In recent years, information and communication technology, seafood, hospitality and property development, healthcare, renewable energy, and education and training have emerged as important sectors, attracting substantial investment from both local and foreign investors.

Mauritius has no exploitable fossil fuel reserves and so relies on petroleum products to meet most of its energy requirements.

Local and renewable energy sources are biomass, hydro, solar and wind energy. Mauritius has one of the largest exclusive economic zones in the world, and in the government announced its intention to develop the marine economy.

Mauritius is ranked high in terms of economic competitiveness, a friendly investment climate, good governance and a free economy.

Mauritius has a high-income economy , according to the World Bank in According to the Mauritian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the country's challenges are heavy reliance on a few industry sectors, high brain drain, scarcity of skilled labour, ageing population and inefficient public companies and para-statal bodies.

Mauritius has built its success on a free market economy. According to the Economic Freedom of the World report, Mauritius is ranked as having the 9th most free economy in the world.

According to the Financial Services Commission , financial and insurance activities contributed to It is home to a number of international banks, legal firms, corporate services, investment funds and private equity funds.

Financial products and services, includes private banking, global business, insurance and reinsurance, limited companies, protected cell companies, trust and foundation, investment banking, global headquarter administration.

Despite being tagged as a tax haven by the press due to its low tax regime, [] [] the country has built up a solid reputation by making use of best practices and adopting a strong legal and regulatory framework to demonstrate its compliance with international demands for greater transparency.

In June , Mauritius adhered to the multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters , and currently has an exchange information mechanism with jurisdictions.

Mauritius is a founding member of the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti Money Laundering Group and has been at the forefront in the fight against money laundering and other forms of financial crime.

Mauritius is a major tourist destination, the tourism sector is the fourth contributor to the Mauritian economy. The island nation enjoys a tropical climate with clear warm sea waters, beaches, tropical fauna and flora complemented by a multi-ethnic and cultural population.

Since public buses in Mauritius have been free of charge for students, people with disabilities and senior citizens.

The harbour of Port Louis handles international trade as well as a cruise terminal. The sole international airport for civil aviation is Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport , which also serves as the home operating base for the national airline Air Mauritius ; the airport authority inaugurated a new passenger terminal in September Mauritius has a serious traffic problem due to the high number of road users, particularly car drivers.

To solve the traffic congestion issue, the government has embarked on the Metro Express project. The line starts from Port Louis and will go to Curepipe when completed.

The first phase of the project was completed in January while the second phase will be completed in The information and communications technology ICT sector has contributed to 5.

Gabrielle Wiehe is a prominent illustrator and graphic designer. The distinctive architecture of Mauritius reflects the island nation's history as a colonial trade base connecting Europe with the East.

Styles and forms introduced by Dutch, French, and British settlers from the seventeenth century onward, mixed with influences from India and East Africa, resulted in a unique hybrid architecture of international historic, social, and artistic significance.

Mauritian structures present a variety of designs, materials, and decorative elements that are unique to the country and inform the historical context of the Indian Ocean and European colonialism.

Decades of political, social, and economic change have resulted in the routine destruction of Mauritian architectural heritage. Between and , the historic homes of the island's high grounds, known locally as campagnes, disappeared at alarming rates.

More recent years have witnessed the demolition of plantations, residences, and civic buildings as they have been cleared or drastically renovated for new developments to serve an expanding tourism industry.

The capital city of Port Louis remained relatively unchanged until the mids, yet now reflects the irreversible damage that has been inflicted on its built heritage.

Rising land values are pitted against the cultural value of historic structures in Mauritius, while the prohibitive costs of maintenance and the steady decline in traditional building skills make it harder to invest in preservation.

The general populace historically lived in what are termed creole houses. The island plays host to the Le Prince Maurice Prize. In keeping with the island's literary culture the prize alternates on a yearly basis between English-speaking and French-speaking writers.

The major musical genres of Mauritius are Sega and its fusion genre , Seggae , Bhojpuri folk songs , Indian movie music especially Bollywood , and Classical music mainly Western classical music and Indian classical music.

The cuisine of Mauritius is a combination of Indian, Creole, French and Chinese, with many dishes unique to the island.

Spices are also a big part of Mauritian cuisine. The public holidays of Mauritius involve the blending of several cultures from Mauritius's history.

There are Hindu festivals , Chinese festivals , Muslim festivals , as well as Christian festivals. All the public holidays related to religious festivals have dates that vary from year to year except for Christmas.

The most popular sport in Mauritius is football [] and the national team is known as The Dodos or Club M. Other popular sports in Mauritius include cycling, table tennis, horse racing, badminton, volleyball, basketball, handball, boxing, judo, karate, taekwondo, weightlifting, bodybuilding and athletics.

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